In the year 55o B.C Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenian Dynasty,and in the heart of pars,Pasargadae became the capital of the history’s first ever Great Emperor.
Pasargadae has been written and called in many different forms,including Pazagad,Parsagad and pasergad ,and some have even related it to pars.
Following the all of Achaemenian Dynasty ,the ancient language and script of persia were soon forgotten ,and Pasargadae also lost its political importance,but its sacred memory lived on in people’s minds.In Islamic era the place was called as Mausoleum of Martyred Mother of solomon or the Mausoleum of Martyred Mother of prophet.The choice of this Terminology was due to the emanating purity and opulence of the place,which was thought by Muslim travelers as being impossible for mere humans to build.It was for this same reason that cyrus tomb came to be known as solomon Mother’s Grave and the tall rock tower as the Solomon’s prison.
The most glorious and beautiful masterpiece in Pasargadae complex ,is the tomb of Cyrus the great which is stands still firm and stable during 25 centuries.The first European tourist who studied about pasargadae was Juzpe Barbaro from veniz who visited this place in 1474 A.D and his book proves that the tomb of Cyrus from that time was called SolomonMother’s Grave .The structure itself is made up of two distinct parts:a seven-stepped rectangular platform covering an area of 156m,and a small 7.5m chamber with slanted roofs and walls of 1.5m in thickness.and it has 11m height The entrance door of the grave is situated to the northwest of the construction and is 75cm wide.This small portal had also two stone doors ,which areNow destroyed .After Cyrus was slain in battle (530B.C),his body was mummified and placed in a golden bed among precious royal objects and his weapons.People also thought that no human being could erect such a monument from large boulders(rocks),but was the work of giants at the service of solomon.It was for this reason that this building was also attributed to this prophet and was considered as the final place for his mother.
The Private Palace
This Palace is situated at a distance of 1350 meters northwest of tomb of Cyrus and covered an area of 3192m .Its design and architectural details point to a private dwelling.It includes a central hall ,two terraces to the east and west and two open spaces in the north and south .The central hall had thirty columns with cubic bases in two steps made from black andWhite stones.Each was on a circular and ridged annulet under a cylindrical shaft of smooth marble on the southwestern end of this terrace,there is only a stone frame on which is written in three languages of Ancient persian ,Elamid and Babylonian the following phrase:I am cyrus ,The Achamenian king.
One of the most magnificent monuments of the early Achamenian era is a square tower like structure,referred to as solomon’s prison by the Muslims.Today the single standing wall is the sole proof of its existence.some believe that it was the grave of cambyses the son and heir to Cyrus,others thought of it as a fire temple and yet there are those who claim that it was Cyrus’ treasury.(it has been under investigation).
Among these ,the proofs provided to support the first theory seems to be more convincing .The tower resembles a monument in Necropolis called the zoroaster kaaba.14m in height and measuring 7.27*7.23 the tower stands on a three –stepped platform.
The location of this palace was carefully choosen to be distant from the private palaces.It covers the area of 2472m on a northwest to southeasterly .The complex itself is composed of a number of sections.A large hall with eight columns,occupies the central point on an area of 705m. A small section of what was once a majestic floor covering has survived to this day.
These portals and the columns supporting the terraces were all made of black stones.The northwestern door (the present entrance for visitors),Bears the image of a human feet and an eagle,and is connected to a terrace with sixteen columns .However the northeastern door opens up to the largest terrace with 48 columns in total.The southeastern door (opposite the present day entrance)bears the images of
Human ,a fish ,and a bull.
The Gate Palace(Winged Human)
Covering an area of 726m,this palace occupied the southeastern section of pasargadae.Eight columns ,each reaching a height of 16m,support the ceiling of its 586m main hall.The column bases are in the form of double stepped cubes of black stone.Due to heavy damage sustained,they are now protected under straw and clay mortar.the very size of these bases indicates the dimension of theColumns,of which unfortunately no traces are left.
This hall had two main entrances in the northwest and southeast and two side doors in the northeast and southwest side of it.Each portal measured 9m in height.only the supporting frame of the northeastern doors remains standing.It bears the image of a standing figure withFour wings deep in prayer bears an Egyptian crown consisting of two ram horns,three cones holding the sum and two corbras on each side.
Tal-e Thakht with the area of 20m2,was built on the hill since to be dominated to desert .the height of Tal-e Thakht is 50 meters .The view of Tal-e Thakht is made of carving stones which are connected together by metal joint .Breaking stones as a result of discovery the joints cause many harms to them.
By excavation in Tal-e Thakht,a tablet belongs to Khashayar shah (Divan tablet )was found which shows that the capital of Cyrus the Great during Achaemenian Empire was a Holy palace(mostly for coronation).